Bracket - an orthodontic appliance made of metal or ceramic that can be cemented to the tooth surface for holding orthodontic wires
Crowding - is the most common problem in orthodontics caused by insufficient space
Invisalign - a newly developed technique using a series of plastic trays to move the teeth. The trays are manufacutred according to the computerized predicted teeth position.
Functional appliances - orthodontic devices (either fixed or removable) designed to correct mismatch of the jaw position by modifying the growth. Work more favorably on growing patients.
Mandible, mandibular - lower jaw
Maxilla, maxillary - upper jaw
Occlusion - refers to the normal spatial relationship of the teeth when the jaws are closed
Overbite - refers to the amount of vertcial overlap between the upper and lower incisors
Overjet - refers to the horizontal distance between the upper and lower incisors
Prognathia, prognathic - protruding jaw bone
Protrusion, dental/skeletal - when teeth or jaws protrude outward
Retainer - a device that is used for keeping the teeth in position
Retention - a process that allows teeth to settle into a stable position after orthodontic treatment
Retrognathia, retrognathic - underdevelopment of jaw bone making it look recessive
Spacing - is due to a tooth-to-jaw size disharmony causing an excess space between teeth
Twin block - a pair of retainers worn on upper and lower arches, used for correcting the jaw discrepancy